It integrates with other programming languages like C, C++, and Java. Some of Hack’s most impressive features are its fast development cycle and its type checking. Hack can reconcile the development cycle of a dynamic typed language like a static typed language, but with many features found in other modern languages. It also provinces instantaneous type checking and runs in less than 200 milliseconds.

The efforts for developing this language initiated in Japan in the 1990s. Similar to Perl, it has a dynamic type system and an automatic memory management. It supports multiple programming paradigms and is a dynamic object-oriented language. Designed by Tim Long in 1992, ICI is a general purpose interpreted computer programming language.

One thing to note about high-level programming languages is that these languages allow the programmer to be detached and separated from the machine. The responsibility and power of executing instructions have been handed over to the machine from the programmer. Python is one of the most popular programming languages today and is easy for beginners to learn because of its readability. It is a popular programming language for machine learning and deep learning applications. For example, PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation on some, possibly abstract, machine.

  • It is developed by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson in 2007.
  • Java is not ideal for applications that run on the cloud, as opposed to the server .
  • It is a concurrent programming language that includes a sequential subset, which supports functional programming.
  • As computers have become more powerful, the difference in runtime between low-level and high-level programming languages is often only milliseconds.
  • It has gained popularity among many large IT companies thanks to its simple and modern structure and syntax familiarity.
  • Computer Scientists and Application Developers who need to quickly develop high-performing applications turn to Go as the best programming language to get the job done.

It is a favorite for analyzing and manipulating large data sets. While not as established as some of the other languages in this article, helpful manuals are available from the R development core team and other worthwhile resources throughout the web. Also object-oriented, this general-purpose language is often the choice for coding applications to run across most popular platforms such as Windows, macOS, and Linux. Java is also the main language of the Android operating system, therefore the most-used when creating apps for that OS.

Authoring Languages

Low-level language is machine-dependent programming language. The processor runs low- level programs directly without the need of a compiler or interpreter, so the programs written in low-level language can be run very fast. The language can be used to develop everything from high-level GUIs to lower-level operating systems. Red boasts a human-friendly syntax, low memory footprint and is garbage collected.

It targets the .NET Framework and supports both functional as well as imperative object-oriented programming. Don Syme at the Microsoft Research developed this language, which is now being developed at the Microsoft Developer Division. F Sharp, as it is called, will soon be integrated into the .NET Framework and Visual Studio. Named after the book A Programming Language (Iverson, Kenneth E., 1962), APL is an array programming language. It is interpretive, interactive and a functional programming language. Omputer programming languages are used to to communicate instructions to a computer.


C# is used on the back end of several popular websites like Bing, Dell, Visual Studio, and MarketWatch. PHP is considered a relatively easy language to learn for beginning developers. PHP professionals have access to several dedicated online communities, making it easy to get support and answers to questions.

Python developers earn average annual salaries of about $109,092. Compiled languages have been translated by computer programs from one programming language to another and convert information directly to code, which streamlines the programming process. Database programming languages help to create databases and manipulate the way data is stored inside them.

Compiled Languages

As an older language, PHP benefits from a large ecosystem of users who have produced frameworks, libraries, and automation tools to make the programming language easier to use. Since it’s an older programming language, C is not suitable for more modern use cases such as websites or mobile applications. C also has a complex syntax as compared to more modern languages. A programming language provides a structured mechanism for defining pieces of data, and the operations or transformations that may be carried out automatically on that data. A programmer uses the abstractions present in the language to represent the concepts involved in a computation. These concepts are represented as a collection of the simplest elements available .

For compiled languages, static semantics essentially include those semantic rules that can be checked at compile time. Examples include checking that every identifier is declared before it is used or that the labels on the arms of a case statement are distinct. Other forms of static analyses like data flow analysis may also be part of static semantics. Newer programming languages like Java and C# have definite assignment analysis, a form of data flow analysis, as part of their static semantics.