This includes object-oriented programming, which focuses on manipulating datasets , as well as functional programming — which focuses on using functions to perform complex or multi-step operations. We can’t keep talking about easy programming languages without addressing the giant snake in the room. Python is consistently ranked as one of the most popular programming languages, and for good reason. From its conception in the 1980s, Python was designed to be a highly readable code that could be easily extended with modules well into the future.

Its features offer a blend of procedural, logic-based, and object-oriented programming. It is Microsoft’s command line shell and a scripting language. Released in 2006, it is available with Windows XP, Windows Vista as also with Windows Server 3003 and Windows Server 2008. It is a scripting language, which is believed to be easy to learn.

Swift can only be used on newer versions of iOS 7 and will not work with older applications. As a newer programming language, the code can be unstable at times, and there are fewer third-party resources available to programmers. Different roles, companies, and types of software require knowing and understanding different programming languages—and it’s often beneficial to know multiple languages.

Syntax Handling Languages

Manfred von Thun of La Trobe University in Australia developed this language. As C and C++ are geared toward low-level management of computer resources, knowledge of computer functions such as memory management is beneficial. On average, R developers earn average annual salaries of about $90,940. R is an open-source language that is essentially a different version of the S language.

The language is declarative and the program logic is expressed in the form of relations. Mercury is a functional logic programming language that is based on Prolog. Strawberry Prolog is a dialect of Prolog, which is supposed to be easy to use. Visual Prolog is a strongly typed extension of Prolog that supports object-oriented programming. For this reason, code which needs to run particularly quickly and efficiently may require the use of a lower-level language, even if a higher-level language would make the coding easier.

  • The amount of abstraction provided defines how “high-level” a programming language is.
  • As mentioned, JavaScript is a language used to write code that runs in web browsers.
  • As new programming languages have developed, features have been added that let programmers express ideas that are more remote from simple translation into underlying hardware instructions.
  • Kotlin is specifically for mobile development on the Android operating system, and has become the preferred language for Android applications.
  • An assembly language is not so much a paradigm as a direct model of an underlying machine architecture.

XML in 10 points Archived 6 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine W3C, 1999, “XML is not a programming language.” The output of a compiler may be executed by hardware or a program called an interpreter. In some implementations that make use of the interpreter approach there is no distinct boundary between compiling and interpreting. For instance, some implementations of BASIC compile and then execute the source a line at a time. Natural language programming has been proposed as a way to eliminate the need for a specialized language for programming. However, this goal remains distant and its benefits are open to debate.

Interpreted Languages

Many syntactically correct programs are nonetheless ill-formed, per the language’s rules; and may result in an error on translation or execution. In some cases, such programs may exhibit undefined behavior. Even when a program is well-defined within a language, it may still have a meaning that is not intended by the person who wrote it. A selection of programming language textbooks; only a few of the thousands available. APL introduced array programming and influenced functional programming. At this stage, you might not be able to understand in-depth how this code prints something on the screen.

JavaScript is notably more difficult to learn than the other languages listed in this article. JavaScript is largely responsible for on-the-fly updates, interactive features, animation, and other non-static elements found on a web page or other web-based output. Python is another general-purpose language and is recommended for beginners.