It is an imperative procedural language that was developed by David May and his colleagues at INMOS. Occam-pi is a variant of Occam that has been extended to include nested protocols, recursion, protocol inheritance, array constructors and run-time process creation. It provides the programmers with abilities to write an ALGOL-like code that can be run on small machines. It is a purely functional, not-Turing-complete language, which means that all its programs are guaranteed to terminate. Charity was designed at the University of Calgary, a public University in Canada. Sruthi is a content writer for Simplilearn, with brief prior experience in marketing, journalistic reporting, photography, editing, designing, video-making, and event management.

Multiparadigm languages allow a program to use multiple programming styles to work at once in a single program and combine constructs from different programming languages. Constraint programming languages fall under declarative programming language and express relationships between their variables as constraints. Interpreted languages enable programs to be executed from source code with the help of an interpreter, rather than being compiled. Examples include Apache Ant, JavaScript, PostScript and Windows PowerShell. In this article, we explore a list of 50 programming languages and explain how they work.

Imperative Languages

Python is one of the most widely used user-friendly programming languages. It is an open-source and easy to learn programming language developed in the 1990s. It is mostly used in Machine learning, Artificial intelligence, Big Data, GUI based desktop applications, and Robotics. Assembly language is also a type of low-level programming language that is designed for specific processors.

At first glance, learning R might seem like a challenge as the language can take some getting used to, especially if you’re already familiar with other programming languages. But one reason why learning R is easier than other languages is because every R function comes with extensive documentation that includes explanations of each argument as well as example commands. While not without its detractors, JavaScript is a must-learn if you plan to develop for web-enabled devices. Still the world’s most popular programming language, JS is used to manipulate the output of HTML and CSS, among other things. Having a decent grasp on the three doesn’t make you a full-stack web developer, but it does allow you to create an end-to-end web presence.

  • Dart is good for building user interfaces with event-driven code.
  • Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories developed C to be used on the Unix platform.
  • The syntax of most programming languages can be specified using a Type-2 grammar, i.e., they are context-free grammars.
  • Programs for a computer might be executed in a batch process without human interaction, or a user might type commands in an interactive session of an interpreter.
  • It allows programmers to implement complex features to make web pages alive.

However, like other open-source programming languages, R boasts an active online community of developers, which is always a plus when learning new coding skills. Kotlin is a general-purpose programming language originally developed and unveiled as Project Kotlin by JetBrains in 2011. It is interoperable with Java and supports functional programming languages. The increased use of high-level languages introduced a requirement for low-level programming languages or system programming languages. These languages, to varying degrees, provide facilities between assembly languages and high-level languages.

Command-line interface languages use lines of text to send commands to computer programs. World Wide Web display languages are used to design web pages and provide them with the desired functions, such as page retrieval through links. Data-oriented languages offer different ways to search and edit entity-relationship tables. Examples include Clarion, Gremlin, WebDNA and Wolfram Language. Dart is optimal for programming applications that need to run on multiple platforms, such as Windows and iOS. Master of Science in Computer Science Align program at Northeastern University is specifically designed for students who want to transition into computer science from another field of study.

Proprietary Languages

Microsoft developed C# as a faster and more secure variant of C. It is fully integrated with Microsoft’s .NET software framework, which supports the development of applications for Windows, browser plug-ins, and mobile devices. C# offers shared codebases, a large code library, and a variety of data types. A dialect of a programming language or a data exchange language is a variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature. With languages such as Scheme and Forth, standards may be considered insufficient, inadequate or illegitimate by implementors, so often they will deviate from the standard, making a new dialect.

What Is Java?

High-level untyped languages include BCPL, Tcl, and some varieties of Forth. When beginning your coding journey, you may find yourself asking, “What exactly is a programming language? Check it out and then read on to learn more about different programming languages and what each is good for.

It is an imperative computer programming language targeted at scientific and engineering applications. Mainly intended to perform data processing, it also supports structured programming and recursion. It is a programming language that seems to be related to Pascal, but is actually incompatible with it. Lagoona is an experimental programming language that supports component-oriented programming, a paradigm of decomposing a system into logical or functional components. Michael Franz, a student of Niklaus Wirth developed Lagoona. Seneca, better known as Oberon-2 is an extension of the Oberon programming language.