High-level languages use words (like object, order, run, class, request, etc.) that are closer to the words we use in our everyday lives. This means they’re easier to program in than low-level programming languages, although they do take more time to translate into machine code for the computer. It consists of a combination of high-level and low-level language features and is hence considered as a middle-level programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup of Bell Labs developed C++ as an extension of the C language. Originally known as ‘C with Classes’, it came to be known as C++ from 1983.

XPath is the XML Path Language that is used to select nodes from an XML document. Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations is an XML-based language that is used for the transformation of XML documents into human-readable formats. Apache Ant is a tool for the automation of software build processes. Curl is an object-oriented programming language supporting multiple inheritance. It is a procedural programming language in the form of a set of commands that need to be executed in a sequence like that of a batch file.

  • In fact, most developers need to have at least a basic knowledge of the language.
  • Even though Ruby is ideal for beginners, it’s not only a stepping stone.
  • The syntax and semantics of the language are explicit in the behavior of the reference implementation.
  • It supports pattern matching, definable operators, single assignment, algebraic data types and recursive functions.

One language may occupy the greater number of programmer hours, a different one has more lines of code, and a third may consume the most CPU time. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications. Other languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications.

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Lisp, implemented in 1958, was the first dynamically typed functional programming language. Programming language theory is a subfield of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages. The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax and semantics , which are usually defined by a formal language. Some languages are defined by a specification document while other languages have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, and more are being created every year.

The first code and compiler was developed in 1952 for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester and is considered to be the first compiled high-level programming language. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formal specification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution. Examples of high-level programming languages in active use today include Python, Visual Basic, Delphi, Perl, PHP, ECMAScript, Ruby, C#, Java and many others.

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It proved instrumental in the creation of programming languages like BCPL, B and C. Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo were the brains behind Simula. Members of the Computer Graphics Technology Group developed Lua in 1993. It is an imperative and procedural programming language that was designed as a scripting language. Although there are hundreds of programming languages, very few make it to the short list of languages you should know.

Logic Programming Languages

It supports exception handling mechanisms and looping constructs. It was the first compiled object-oriented programming language that was based on prototype concepts. Acronym of Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language, DIBOL is a general-purpose procedural imperative programming language. It is fairly similar to COBOL as it’s best suited for the development of Management Information Systems.